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This is the beginning of the Enlightenment and the very modern idea that knowledge is gained not through divine revelation but through progressive human investigation. In their eyes, the role of the academy is not to only teach received knowledge, but is also to ever question, ever pursue new knowledge. Hegel argued that art serves culture by representing the zeitgeist, or spirit of the age and that within art, an avantgarde takes on the role of leading society towards the evermore progressive unfolding of the zeitgeist.
The avant-garde does not simply reflect its culture, it helps it to anticipate and evolve a more progressive society. As Winston Churchill said, we shape our buildings and then they shape us. To the idealistic modernists, architects have an ethical responsibility to build an ever more modern, more progressive world. The Modernist model of education that emerged in the early 20th Century was committed to these ideals and deliberately broke with the composition-based, elite-oriented programs of the Beaux Arts model then in place.
Instead, the Bauhaus and its progeny emphasized a doctrine of functionalism, health, and the classless society. An abstract formal language was privileged both as a signifier of functional efficiency and legibility and for its purity and lack of cultural association with prior styles and classes. Instead of serving the commercial needs and bourgeois desires of clients, the heroic modern architect serves a larger social mission, and is uncompromising in his superiority as he battles to lead the uncomprehending heathens towards his ideals.
Design and creativity tend to be held in more esteem than the learning of history, technology, or professional practice.
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Studios still emphasize individual rather. Students present their projects to a jury of both sympathetic and skeptical professors and are rehearsed in how to verbalize their intentions and defend their ideas and ideals. This form of architectural education presumes that, ala Howard Roark, the students will need to be prepared to lead, educate, and convince their, presumably, recalcitrant clients. By mid-century both the schools and practitioners become increasingly professionalized and another role model emerges: the corporate architect working for the big corporate firm designing buildings for the big corporations.
While a few designers, like Gordon Bunschaft at SOM, take the lead, the rest of his team are professionals with specialized duties who are expected to suppress their own egos and social ideals in favor of contributing to the technical performance of the building. At the same time, the National Architectural Accreditation Board defines specific criteria schools have to meet in order for their degrees to be professionally accredited.
In response, architecture curricula in the fifties and sixties become increasingly technocratic.
By the late sixties students increasingly protested against being trained as a-critical technocrats producing country clubs and corporate headquarters. Their demands for a more socially relevant curriculum reflected larger societal questions of the benefits of modernization. Instead of leading towards a more progressive condition, technology was increasingly being recognized as contributing to threats of war, pollution, and social alienation.
Louis, designed by Minoru Yamasaki. In the post-modern seventies, educator-architects like Michael Graves and Peter Eisenman influenced a generation to design buildings as commentaries on the human condition. Instead of discussing contemporary work in terms of the perfect curtain wall or thinnest possible neoprene gasket, schools began borrowing structuralist techniques from linguistics and later literary criticism and philosophy, to interpret the meaning of architectural designs.
Architecture was again presented to students as a medium for expressing, not so much their ideals, but their personal critiques of cultural conditions. In the design studios this was accompanied by an increased emphasis on form as the unanticipated result of a serial process rather than as a deliberate, authored, refinement of a learned body of knowledge.
Its superimposition of three unrelated formal systems.
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On the contrary, it deconstructs the modernist tropes of reason and order as confining and arbitrary, and posits randomness and individual choice as more liberating conditions. He argues that what makes for fundamentally urban and metropolitan conditions is not a system of planned streets, squares, and blocks, but rather the chance encounters and unplanned events of different kinds of activities and people coming together.
Euralille collides and juxtaposes different uses in ways that try to play up the collisions, celebrate speed as a form of individual freedom and avoid the making of traditionally ordered public spaces. His more recent championing of shopping as a freeing and public activity continues to challenge modern precepts while establishing him as a leading neo-avant-gardist. Gradually, the interest in critical theory and poststructuralism is waning and there is some renewed interest in the schools in reforming conditions rather than simply commenting on them.
However, the neo-avant-garde posture remains dominant, in large part due to the standard liberal arts effort to help students develop a critical stance. In architecture, this results in a continued emphasis on teaching students to critique contemporary conditions and critique conventional norms. Parc de la Villette. Drawing by Tschumi and Associates. Unfortunately, the emphasis on critiquing conventions often leads to unquestioned assumptions that if designs look traditional, they must be socially retrograde, and conversely, that if they look new and inventive, regardless of whether they simply reinforce the dominance of cultural elites they must be socially progressive.
As a consequence, the modernist model of education continues to emphasize invention — and in the worst cases, merely novelty — over critically teaching and learning conventions and traditions. The celebrity afforded Frank Gehry for his inventive and highly sculptural buildings only further reinforces the appeal to students of chasing the new and developing an innovative signature style. Clearly, there is a strong cultural desire for work like his that challenges us to aspire to go beyond the familiar, to make a better world than we have yet known. While an education that focuses entirely on the.
Generic building types also tend to be inclusive rather than exclusive while the architectures of the past are inevitably associated with the social hierarchies that produced them. Photo by Carlos J. Discussion: Gary Hack: As Victor said, the classical kind of gives you key exercises, you know, major drawing perspective. What would you say the query for a classic exercise for a person was? The last 15 years have produced some very strange exercises. There was a visiting critic at the University of Virginia who had his students go to the airport, get a meal for one of the flights, put it in the freezer and then slice it in sections both ways and use the slices as a basis for starting their design project.
Similarly, there are people programming relatively random data into computer algorithms to generate un-preconceived forms. You talked about the break between Modernism and the tradition of architectural education.
You talked a little bit about the break between Modernist faith and what really the kind of postModernist condition of antifaith, which there is a whole process of education which is dictated in a summary of sort of how we got from the one to the other and what do you think some of the reasons and applications are? The two metanarratives in particular that he sees the postmodernists breaking away from are the Enlightenment ideas that the world is on a course of inevitable progress and that knowledge is liberating and the key to progress.
Instead, Lyotard cites postmodern disillusionment resulting from the unintended consequences of technology, modernization, and digital information overload. As a form of consciousness raising, such critique and commentary is still assumed by some postmodernists to be able to lead to notions of reform. Leading intellectuals of the new avantgardism do not talk about progress.
They are post-modernists in this respect and have a wary cynicism about Enlightenment agendas and the degree to which architecture is capable of contributing to real cultural progress. There has been a marked shift, some of which is really quite promising. The postmodern, Tafuri-laden message of theory ten, fifteen years ago, was that the architect is more or less powerless to change the world or even control the critical interpretation of their work and the only way to regain control is to learn more and more about theory.
The computer offers an entirely new set of tools to students, re-empowers them to be able to actually do things and as a consequence many of them are far less interested in theoretical, intellectual speculation.